Caring for your baby before birth

Every parent wants to do what is best for their baby. A fact no one can deny. But when does this parenting actually begin? When do you become a parent? We believe from the moment the baby is conceived, and the father should be as much a part of the unborn baby’s life as the mother because when the going gets tough for her, he should be there to offer his support and comfort which matters a lot to the expectant mother. He should make sure that she does not face mothering all alone. Mutual love and understanding counts at all times, especially with the mother to be going through drastic mood swings and sickness. Hence the father plays a very important role in the baby’s life making the mother’s time soothing and comfortable, free of any stress or anxiety.

Pregnancy Care

Here are some of the key ways by which you can ensure the birth of a healthy baby:

  1. The couple must not smoke. The cigarettes fumes can be as harmful for a non smoker as it is for a smoker.
  2. Avoid taking antibiotics or any medication, unless it is absolutely essential. Of course this is mainly for mama dear.
  3. Keep your weight at its very normal.
  4. Have a regular routine which includes plenty of exercise, enough sleep and being in command of your life.
  5. Have a thorough medical checkup. Find out if your blood type is compatible with that of your husbands. Get a blood and urine test.
  6. It is also important for you to find out about any family illness like heart troubles, diabetes etc. Find out as much as possible about these.
  7. Get a good baby book and read it now. Later you won’t get time, nor the peace and quite time!
  8. Choose a good doctor, someone whom you know or you have had knowledge of. Someone you can trust because one needs reassurance from a doctor who is available throughout the nine months.
  9. Try to have your baby between the ages of 20 and 40.
  10. Have at least a two or three year gap between children. Only then is your body ready to produce or carry another baby, without making it a terrible strain for you.
  11. Be sure you are protected against Rubella measles and other contagious diseases, for which immunization is possible, before you get pregnant.
  12. If you or your husband has the genital herpes infection, the doctor must be informed.
  13. During your pregnancy do not touch a cat as it might be a source of toxoplasmosis infection.
  14. Avoid eating undercooked meal Also when cooking meat be very scrupulous while handling it and you must wash your hands thoroughly afterwards. Also wash the cutting board and knife used for cutting raw meat thoroughly after use.
  15. Do not take any medicines even an aspirin during pregnancy without the doctors advice. If you were already under medication, before you got pregnant, you must inform your doctor about your pregnancy and ask if it is wise to continue.
  16. If a pregnant woman takes drugs, it is most likely that her baby will become addicted too.
  17. Similarly avoid sitting in front of a monitor screen while working on the computer. There is no proof as to how harmful could it be, but as they say “prevention is better than cure”.
  18. When using the microwave do not stand in front of it. Stand away from it. You never know there might be a leakage from the joint of gadget.
  19. You must avoid being x-rayed and also being in an x-ray room.
  20. You must get regular checkups. Take vitamins, iron, and calcium supplements regularly. Ask your doctor to recommend them for you.
  21. Try to keep yourself away from stress and depressing news because the more you will protect your unborn baby from anxiety, the more content and happier mum to be you would be!
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Quit Smoking Cigarette

A good beginning and a healthy resolve is half the battle won.

TOBACCO is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today. According to the World Health Organisation, the annual death toll due to tobacco is expected to rise from the current estimate of five million to 10 million annually by 2025, and over 70 percent of these deaths are occurring in developing countries.

Say no to Smoking

Though most of the smokers in developing countries are aware about the effects of smoking and are willing to quit smoking but either their family physicians are:

  • not trained on the newer techniques of ‘Smoking Cessation’, or,
  • don’t have a registered product ensuring a consistent availability of the product, or
  • they consider it a habit and not a disease.

Some other facts are as follows:

  • There is an increasing trend of smoking among women.
  • Skilled and professionals smoke more often than nonprofessionals.
  • Married men smoke more than unmarried men.
  • Separated, widowed or divorced women smoke more than women in happy relationships.
  • Most male smokers start smoking at a much earlier age, the school age but a large percentage continue smoking till late in life.
  • Do you want to Quit Smoking?

    In this vast universe of confirmed smokers, are you one of those who wish you could change. Have you ever asked yourself why do you smoke? Have you considered fighting the compulsion that urges you to reach out, pick the slim reed and light to inhale? Do you curse the day you smoked your first cigarette, little knowing then that it would lead you towards a slavery of tobacco?

    Are you seeking to give up smoking due to any of the following?

    Physical reasons

    • I want to be fit and healthy
    • I don’t want to die of tuberculosis, coughing or spitting blood
    • I don’t want to die of lung cancer

    Financial benefit of your family

    • I can’t continue wasting my earnings
    • I want to send my kids to a respectable school
    • I want to buy a rental property for my family
    • I want to gift jewelry to my wife on our wedding anniversary

    Its unacceptability among office colleagues and friends

    • During meetings I am not liked, usually by the opposite sex
    • Colleagues complain of bad smell from my mouth and clothes
    • My kids feel bad when I smoke in the room or in the car

    I am scared

    • My uncle, a chronic smoker, died due to mouth cancer
    • My friend developed tuberculosis at the age of 35 years; his physicians attribute it to smoking
    • My wife was a smoker. Now that she is pregnant, she wants to continue. What should be my instructions to her?
    • I have noticed that my 16-year old son has a foul breath, is he a smoker?

    Chances are you ticked at least six out of the lot. Whatever your reasons, believe me, they are sound. A good beginning and a healthy resolve is half the battle won.

    By quitting smoking, your heart rate and blood pressure start decreasing in just half an hour.

    20 minutes Heart rate becomes normal
    24 hours Chances of heart attack decreases
    2 weeks – 3 months Circulation and lung function improves
    1 – 9 months Cilia function of the lungs become normal
    12 months Risk of a heart attack reduces to half
    5 years Stroke rate remains the same as that of nonsmokers
    10 years Risk of lung damage decreases
    15 years Risk of heart attack decreases to the level for nonsmokers

    If you are tempted to smoke, try drinking grape juice, it makes cigarette taste disgusting.

    Your Battle Plan

    Day One: Say no to cigarettes.

    Day Two: When you have an urge to smoke, engage yourself in some important official assignment or exercise and drink lots of water.

    Day Three: It may be the worst period, the urge to smoke lasts only 20 minutes, if you are able to overcome these few minutes, you will be able to win the battle against smoking.

    Day Four: In order to quit the habit of smoking, you need to draw a calendar of events and see which event urges or compels you to smoke – office work, home or leisure time? Once you are done with this, you need to draw a strategy to counter such cravings. This would help you to stop smoking cigarette.

    Day Five: Go for relaxation exercises to help your body adapt to new physical changes. Continue the above techniques.

    Week Two: You will start feeling better. Now you can exercise more, take a deep breath, run more and pick more weights. Your blood vessels will now be dilated and more blood will circulate in your body.

    Month: Significant changes in the lung function and heart rate can be evaluated by physicians and the cycle of improvement continues unabatedly.

    “Don’t feel embarrassed by quitting smoking because only courageous, bold and strong people can take such a step.”

    Once you have decided to quit smoking, the first thing to do is to make a promise to yourself that you will quit, you need to engrave self determination and commitment in your mind. Once you have done this, plan as under and seek the help of your family, friends and your physician to help you quit smoking. Some of the steps that will help you design a ‘Quitting Campaign’ are as follows:

    Phase one
    Few ways to avoid craving

    • Avoid stress, if you feel stressed, engage yourself in activities you enjoy like watching TV, playing a game or reading your favorite book.
    • Avoid meeting friends who smoke or to hotels and restaurant that permit smoking.
    • While watching TV or movies, eat fruits, nuts and chew gums instead of smoking.
    • Indulge in Yoga or any other exercise during the time you saved through not smoking.
    • Develop friendships with nonsmokers or with people who hate smoking.

    Phase two
    Seek anti – smoking treatment

    • Make up your mind and talk to your loved ones for the support you need to quit smoking.
    • Imagine that smoking is very bad for your and your children’s health.
    • Imagine that you are among a group of close friends who ignore or dislike you smoking.
    • Plan the quitting process, talk to your family, especially your wife, closest friend or your physician.
    • Follow simple tips which you developed on your own.
    • Paste quotes and instructions in your office and your bedroom.
    • Don’t keep an ashtray in your office or bedroom.
    • Keep a calendar to follow the days since you quit.
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Foods that can help increase your Metabolism

Foods that can help to increase body metabolism are the ones that take more time in digesting and processing through the body. These foods also provide more energy and health to the body. Some of these foods that help increase your metabolism are listed below:



Proteins being one of the most important sources of energy are consumed in many ways. Proteins form a large part of human muscles and these muscles provide strength and framework to the body. Proteins also make your hair, nails and skin healthy. The body spends a lot of energy in digesting and using proteins. In this way foods rich in protein boost up the regulating system and increase the metabolic rate of your body. So, foods rich in proteins should be used regularly in diet, which include mutton, chicken, fish, beans, pulses and beef.


A high fibre diet is also very healthy. It takes more time to pass through the intestinal system of human body. It helps to bind cholesterol and also regulate glucose levels in the blood. In this way it helps the body to gain more energy by eating less amount of food.

Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables, particularly raw ones, help boost the metabolism of your body. Your body has to work more to extract the vitamins and minerals out of the fruits and vegetables. In this way more energy is being spent by it.

The foods that increase metabolism of the body also help to control obesity and weight gain problems. When the body spends more energy in digesting the food, it regulates its fat metabolism. In this way it burns the extra fats from the blood and body. Obesity itself is a very major risk for heart disease, stroke and hypertension.

Another important step that can help to increase the metabolism of your body is proper and regular physical exercise. Exercise improves body metabolism keeping it healthy and fit. It also improves the circulation of the blood and maintains the tone of the muscles and the body. A light walk half an hour after every meal and a brisk morning walk will make your body healthy and strong.

Also remember to adjust the quantity and timings of your meal. The ideal way is to eat less, but in frequent meals. You should take at least five to seven meals a day containing small amounts of servings. This gives your body the adequate time to digest food and it also provides more energy to the body.

Eating too much at one time makes your body clumsy and obese. The body has to work more than its capacity which makes the muscles tired and fatigued. This is harmful for the body metabolism and health. It also decreases the body’s metabolic rate and hence the systems do not work effectively in the way they should work.

Follow these tips to help you to gain maximum energy from food and regulate your metabolic rate.

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Everyday ways to lower blood pressure

DRUGS and diet aren’t the only ways to treat high blood pressure. Deep breathing, meditation, exercise, and even waxing your car can work just as well. The catch? It takes a lot of effort and perseverance to get your blood pressure under control without prescription drugs. Most guys can’t or won’t devote enough time to make it work. The following drug-free high blood pressure treatments have been scientifically proven and can really pay off if you take the time to explore them. They may not be easy, but once you learn the techniques, you can use them anywhere and they’ll add years to your life.

Lower Blood Pressure Naturally

Do your chores – You have no more excuses; now you’ll absolutely have to do the dishes. Researchers at Indiana University found that simple household chores can lower your blood pressure as much as some medications. The team, led by Professor Janet Wallace, found that a few hours of “lifestyle physical activity” a day can drop systolic blood pressure by an average of about 13 points. That’s enough to yank most guys out of the “hypertensive” classification (anything higher than 140 / 90) and put them in a less worrisome category.

Washing your ride, mowing the lawn, running the vacuum or even doing the dishes can help. The key is to bum at least 150 calories while you do your chores. That won’t be difficult as simple lifestyle changes can help you achieve that and make a big difference. Don’t hire the neighbour’s kid to mow your lawn. Wash the Beemer yourself at home or at a pay ‘n’ spray. Run the vacuum more often and get that garden going. In short, stay active. Even a little extra work around the house can make a big difference.

Use your mind – We have a lot more control over our bodies than we think. Many autonomic body functions such as pulse rate, temperature and blood pressure can be controlled with a little concentration. This yogi-like feat is called “biofeedback” in scientific circles and it’s been proven to work wonders.

A recent carried at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas found that patients could drop their blood pressure by as much as 10 points by simply thinking about it. Patients with high and normal blood pressure were taught basic relaxation techniques and biofeedback. In a biofeedback session, patients monitor their pulse, blood pressure and temperature as they practice deep breathing. Through this monitoring, they learn how to affect their autonomic functions. The study revealed that people with high blood pressure, low fingertip temperature and a tendency to react quickly or negatively to stressful situations reaped the most benefit from biofeedback. Unfortunately, many people simply don’t want to take the time to learn these relaxation techniques.

Give biofeedback a try – Many metropolitan areas harbour biofeedback centres that offer quick lessons. The classes aren’t free or cheap, but they aren’t as costly as hypertension.

Meditate – Yogis don’t have high blood pressure; they are pillars of peace and pure relaxation. But they aren’t born that way; they work at it. With a little patience, you can use the same techniques they’ve developed over the ages to get your blood pressure under control.

Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia found that people who studied Transcendental Meditation had a 6.5% decrease in vasoconstriction when meditating. People who didn’t meditate, on the other hand, showed a 1.6% increase in vasoconstriction during a non-meditative relaxation session. Additionally, those who meditated on a regular basis had remarkably low blood pressure to begin with. “For years we’ve known that long-term practitioners of Transcendental Meditation generally have lower blood pressure than others the same age,” says Vernon A. Barnes, PhD, lead researcher in the study.

They also found that middle-school children were able to lower their anxiety levels and blood pressure by meditating for 20 minutes a day. On average, the students in the study managed to knock 3.8 points off their systolic blood pressure readings.

How can you use meditation to treat your hypertension? It won’t take a trip to India or a change in faith. Simply sit in a calm place, close your eyes and breathe. When thoughts pop into your head, notice them, but don’t react, and gently focus on your breathing. It’s that simple. For more advanced lessons, seek out a class at a local college or meditation centre.

Sleep well – Tossing and turning at night? It may be raising your blood pressure. A study at Broussais Hospital in Paris found that poor sleep leads to hypertension. The researchers studied about 7,900 workers in Paris and found that those who had nightmares, tossed and turned, snored or woke frequently during the night had higher blood pressure than those who slept uninterruptedly.

Another study published in the medical journal Hypertension found that a dose of melatonin at bedtime reduce night time blood pressure and improve sleep. Melatonin is a natural hormone that is thought to help with the body’s daily biological rhythms and sleep. For the last few years, it has been available as an over- the-counter supplement. However, because melatonin is naturally occurring, it can’t be patented, so drug companies and the FDA haven’t done long-term research on the supplement. Unfortunately, that makes claims about its effectiveness suspect.

A third study has also linked sleep quality with hypertension. Researchers at Columbia University found that people who get five hours or less of sleep a night are more likely to develop hypertension. In the study, about 4,800 people were tracked for 10 years. The researchers found that almost a quarter of the people who slept less than five hours developed hypertension, while only 12% of those who got seven or eight hours had elevated blood pressure.

This shouldn’t be news to anybody; a good night’s sleep has long been linked to good health. Still, many guys choose to ignore the obvious, forgoing a few hours of sleep for a few hours of TV. Others are simply too busy to hit the hay at a reasonable hour. The bottom line: Do whatever you can to get some rest at night. It’ll do a lot for your health and happiness.

A little relaxation and some physical activity can do wonders for your cardiovascular health. Still, these methods shouldn’t be seen as cure-ails for hypertension. Visit your doctor often and keep tabs on your blood pressure. If it gets out of control despite your best efforts, medication may be your only recourse. If you can lower your blood pressure with a few minutes of meditation or chores a day, keep it up it’ll pay off in the long run.

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Adopt a low carb lifestyle

A diet having low carbohydrates is an ideal diet for a well balanced life. It can help to reduce weight as well as keep it within normal limits. It also maintains good health of various body systems. Some important points related to a low carbohydrate diet along with its health benefits are mentioned below:

Low Carbs Diet

  1. Normally people think that low fats and high carbohydrates should be taken, but this is not true. Actually carbohydrates should also be minimized in your diet. This is because they are the substances that increase weight and make the body obese. This happens when carbohydrates are taken in large quantity. The body has to work more to digest them which creates problems.
  2. Eating fewer carbohydrates prevents the body from diabetes, by producing less insulin in the body. Diabetes is one of the major problems of the world today, and you can decrease its incidence by controlling the amount of carbohydrates you take in your diet. On taking more carbohydrates, the body has to produce more insulin to digest it and this increases the incidence of diabetes in susceptible individuals.
  3. If insulin is high it also produces early aging of the body. This is because the body cells have to work more consuming more energy for unnecessary tasks. This makes the cells fatigued and exhausted. This means that fewer carbohydrates also act as an anti-aging factor.
  4. Less carbohydrates decrease insulin and increase glucagons in the blood. This hormone helps to burn the body fats and in this way control weight gain problems. The hormone also stabilizes the level of cholesterol in the blood. It reduces increased cholesterol levels and clotting of blood.
  5. Low carbohydrates help to prevent many heart related problems. It makes the heart healthy and prevents atherosclerosis, heart attack and stroke. This in turn, also prevents clotting of vessels in major organs of the body.
  6. The best thing about carbohydrates is that you can eat till you are not hungry any more. This thing can help to satisfy the person till he is satiated. It also helps to prevent hunger in a positive way and decreases fat contents from the body.
  7. Eating a low carbohydrate diet can decrease many risks related to obesity and many problems of the nervous system. This diet improves circulation of the blood in body. It also aids in making strong memory and good attention.
  8. Low carbohydrates diet give sustained weight loss, lower insulin levels, better blood lipid profile and lowered blood pressure. It also helps to attain a better blood picture.
  9. Fluctuations of blood pressure are a major problem of the present world, which is not only common in the old people; but has also has troubled the young generation of today. The reason is imbalanced diets containing more carbohydrates and fewer fats. Young people prefer to have a low fat diet considering it healthy, which is a wrong concept and leads to many health hazards.

So following a low carbohydrates containing diet, to benefit from the wonderful results in stabilizing weight.

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Loose a few inches here and there with Ardha Salabhasana

When weight is gained, the first place where most people put on, is on the thighs and then on hips. Sometimes large hip measurements are a result of sedentary habits, and people who sit for long hours at a stretch, whether due to their work or as a matter of habit may also end up with a heavy bottom. Extra inches on the hips can make the body look highly unshapely, which is why it is necessary to lose the extra fat around the hips for a perfect figure.

Although it is very easy to gain weight on the hips and thighs, it is difficult to lose at both these places. When women try to lose weight by dieting they normally lose it in the following order: Face, bust, waist, stomach, hips and thighs. It can thus be seen that to lose inches on the hips, it is important not to depend upon dieting but to change certain habits and to get proper exercise. Many yoga asanas can be practiced for this purpose. One of these postures is Ardha Salabhasana, also known as the Half Locust Pose, which along with other benefits, helps in tightening the buttocks and reducing the size of the hips.

Ardha Salabhasana

Ardha Salabhasana is an elementary form of Salabhasana. It is an active posture. It is very suitable for beginners and should be mastered before trying Salabhasana.

Ardha Salabhasana (Half Locust Pose)

  1. Lie on the stomach with the face down on the ground, legs stretched out, side by side, the arms placed at the side of the body, palms facing down-wards, or fists may be made with hands and placed at the sides of the body, or under the stomach. Place the chin on the floor, pushing it forward. This will stretch the neck.
  2. Pull the body and raise the right leg by about 30 cms. off the ground. Hold this position for 5 seconds. Slowly bring the leg down on the ground. Repeat the exercise with the other leg.

This asana can be repeated six or seven times. There is more to this asana than just raising one leg at a time. You should press down harder with the hand on the same side as the leg which is being raised. The pelvis should neither twist nor rise to any extent. The leg should not tilt to one side and it should not bend. Most of the raising is done by the muscles in the small of the back.

Benefits of Half Locust Pose

  1. This posture is excellent for tightening up the muscles around the hips and thereby reducing them.
  2. It gives good exercise to the abdomen; it activates the kidneys, liver and strengthens the ovaries.
  3. This posture gives a backward bend to the spine and benefits the lower part of the spine.
  4. It is useful in extricating waste matter accumulated in the intestines. It helps in curing constipation, gas troubles, indigestion, dysentery, acidity and other abdominal disorders. Regular practice of this asana helps in the prevention of piles.
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Breast feeding versus Bottle feeding

Breast Feeding

Mothers who plan to provide the best for their new born should breast feed their infant for 12 months, but that isn’t what is happening. By the time babies are just two weeks old, only one in two is on the breast. The drop-out rate is also very high. Although nearly two third of all mothers start off by breast feeding, by the time their infants are SIX weeks old, two out of 10 are on the bottle. The old fogies in our midst would probably like to blame all this on the fact that mothers are working ‘when they ought be at home with their children’. But according to statistics, only 11 per cent return to work within five months of having baby. So why are so many mothers reluctant to toe the line?

Women must take the sensible advice that breast feeding is really necessary to ensure healthy growth of their infants.

The commonest reason for abandoning breast feeding is a shortage of milk. This may be imaginary, or it may be a doubt fed into the mother’s mind by the midwife who finds the baby is not putting on the expected amount of weight. These mothers felt guilty about their ‘failure’ to make their baby thrive and were pleased when someone suggested a supplementary bottle.

However, a substantial number of women simply don’t like the idea of breast feeding or can’t face the choice between going into a kind of “covering” or bearing their breast in public. These women simply shy away from breastfeeding, and hence choose the bottle over their breast for their growing child.

The World Health Organization stresses the importance of colostrum, the rich yellowish milk produced in small quantities during the first few days after birth. Colostrum contains more protein, vitamin A and Vitamin B12 than the milk which follows and less fat. But more importantly it has a high concentration of antibodies to diseases to which the mother is immune. This protects the baby from infections in its most vulnerable first weeks. Colostrum, then, is obviously a good thing. However although antibodies are also found in mature milk, no one is sure about the concentration or the importance of these. The clinical relationship between breast feeding and infection in the infant in the developed world remains uncertain. It seems, then, that it is the very-early milk which is the most important, and it is also the kind of milk which most women are able to produce as they rest after giving birth.

It is also believed that unnecessary guilt is induced in women over the breast feeding issue. They really do think it is a shame if a baby doesn’t get the colostrum in the first week. After that, breast milk is only a little better than bottled formula. Unfortunately some extremists imply that breast feeding is no use unless it is carried out for six months. That puts off a lot of women who know they don’t want to go on that long. However, that is not true, because as long as the child gets breast milk, it will be beneficial. If you have to stay away from your child, to go for work, you can always pump and store your breast milk so that someone at home can feed the child.

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Stages in Child Development – Unleashing the trapped genius in your child

Child Development Stages

In this blog post we’ll discuss the different stages in a child’s development. During the first quarter of this century some psychologists and researchers maintained that a child is egocentric that is a child views the world subjectively. The child believes that the world was created for him, that everyone thinks as he does, and that everyone shares his feelings and wishes. They felt that the growth of intellect freed the child from this feeling of egocentricism. To sum up their findings, there are four periods of the child’s cognitive development which we briefly describe as follows:

  1. The period from birth to the age of two years is the period of sensory-motor. The infant displays intelligence in the use of his senses, such as vision, hearing, taste, and smell and for his motor activities like reaching, grasping, crawling, walking and running. He internalises his perceptions and activities to create his own private view of the world around him. Later, the infant begins to use symbolic imagery and tries to develop some kind of language. This is the phase when the child ought to be helped to develop the motor functions of his faculties. If you hang a bright coloured object that is also moving, so that the infant can watch it and develop an eye contact for a sustained period, he is likely to develop his faculty of sight. Similarly, he should get suitable toys with smooth edges, to use his hands and he may take them to his mouth to taste. Keep his mind occupied all the time. The infant needs all the attention, that too from the mother.
  2. The second phase is from the age of two to seven years. This is called the pre-operational period. During this period the child learns the use of language more fully and begins to conceptualise. He makes a distinction within classes (all cats and dogs have the same name as the child’s own cat or dog). He can express his view of the world through drawings, language, or dreams. Pre-logical reasoning appears in the intuitive stage from age four to seven years. The child may play with imaginary companions, spin yarns and stories. He may even engage in compensatory play, that is playing in make-believe what he is forbidden to do in reality, like trying to smoke when alone. Parents should encourage the children to be creative in drawing, needle-work, playing sports, reciting poetry or verse, telling tales, etc. This a period of intuitive thought. The child wants his elders to relate stories to him. They oblige him. This demonstrates the child’s concept of time. “Once upon a time, a very long time ago, now, about last Friday.” Often the child confuses the present with the past. Minutes seem like hours, as he has to wait for a promised trip to a friend. During this stage children attribute life to inanimate things, the dolls get married. He himself behaves like a “teddy bear”, a ghost, a king and so on.
  3. The third stage is called the concrete-operational period, which is between the ages of seven to eleven years. During this period the child’s thinking becomes more logical and reversible. He now understands the logic of classes. He has learned to conserve, to see that objects or quantities remain the same despite changes made in their appearance. Play is more social and it has rules that must be followed. This is the period when he gets his value-system that firms up the basis of his reasoning and logic. His character and aptitudes have begun to take shape. He develops the basis of his faith and conviction, the standard of his personal hygiene.
  4. This phase is the formal-operational period, from the age of eleven to adulthood. The child now understands the logic of propositions hypothesis. He thinks about theories such as space, motion and time. He has developed a value system of his own, and a sense of morality. He would like to behave accordingly.

At each of the above stages the child depends on adults for the understanding of the world he confronts. Parents are the first amongst the human race to help the child to understand the world he lives in, thus he has to understand the parents and people around. His understanding will largely depend on the quality of guidance he gets from adults around him. Finally he needs to understand himself.

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Stay Healthy and Slim

In the recent years obesity has become more common among people of all ages. The combination of too many high-calorie foods and not enough exercise is usually blamed for those unwanted pounds and inches. Fortunately, the problems that excess weight can cause are now being realized. Many people are adopting new, healthier eating patterns and participating in sports to a greater extent. If you want to lose weight, you must reduce your calorie intake by controlling the amount of food and drinks you consume so that your body is receiving less energy than it requires. Only then will the body be forced to draw on its fat reserves.

Stay Healthy

In order to keep yourself fit and your weight within normal limits, the concept of a calorie controlled diet is extremely important. People in general who wish to be slim think that they will have to stay away from all kinds of delectable food. It is a widely believed fallacy. You can still cut out calories without cutting out on taste. In fact, there are numerous tasty dishes containing generous amount of proteins, vitamins and minerals, reduced amount of fat and very little carbohydrate.

When looking for a low-calorie diet, it is important to avoid frying, especially deep frying and resort to steam, cooking and boiling. The calorie controlled diet should consist of fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables and such as cucumber, lemon, tomato, beans, apple, grapefruit, melon, and oranges etc. in balanced amounts. Skimmed milk, natural yogurt and white meat, such as fish, chicken, are also nutritional diet foods.

Today’s nutritional news is good on all counts for slimmers. By following modern healthy-eating guidelines, most people will automatically reduce the number of calories they consume. Now-a-days, slimming diets are designed not only for weight loss but also to introduce people to a better way of eating. There is not much point in losing surplus weight if, before long, you are going to put it all back on again. Far better to adopt an eating plan and a change in lifestyle that will help you to lose excess weight, keep you slim and make you healthier as well.

It has been observed that most people find it difficult reducing or giving-up their intake of sugary substances. This is in fact a major cause of obesity, and requires immediate attention. Reduction in sugar consumption is one of the basic requirements for those who are concerned about their health and are seriously interested in losing excess weight.

We can still satisfy our sweet tooth without having to compromise on the taste.

Eating sweet dishes or desserts, does not have to be a sin. There are healthy desserts, just as there are other healthy food items. But media pressures for fashionable slimness and a health-education concern over high fat and sugar intake, have persuaded many to avoid the dessert course altogether, as a matter of habit. However, such extreme measures need no longer apply. Healthy as well as delicious desserts can now be prepared with low fat, low sugar ingredients, many of them using fresh fruits.

Your Weekly Diet Plan

Here is a guide to the nutrients for which recommended minimums are given – it shows how the average person can easily consume all she/he needs for one week.

Proteins – Your recommended protein requirement is thought to be 378 g a week or 54 g per day. The 2-3 litres skimmed milk which you may use in drinks or on cereals will supply almost 80g of this. The 115g/4 oz Cheddar cheese and 3 eggs together supply almost 50 g, and 400 g/14 oz wholemeal bread supplies 35g. The remaining 215 g comes from 75 g/ 6 oz lean beef, 200g/7oz chicken – in all meat and fish are excellent protein sources.

Iron – Your recommended weekly intake of iron is 84 g (12 g/day). You will get about 58g of this from the milk, cheese, eggs, meats and bread also selected for their protein content. The 115g/4oz kidney adds about8g. All Bran 13 g; and 450 g /16 oz baked beans 6 g bringing you a little over the weekly target.

B Vitamins – The B Vitamins for which there are recommendations are thiamine (4.5 mg/week), riboflavin (9.1 mg) and nicotinic acid (105 mg). The same qualities of milk, eggs, meats, bread, cereal and baked beans that will supply your iron will, between them, supply all these B Vitamins too.

Calcium – As long as you are drinking that 2-3 litres milk, you will be consuming almost all the calcium you require. Recommended allowance is 3500 mg a week (500 mg/day), and the milk will supply about 3045 mg of this. Skimmed milk has the same amount of calcium as semi-skimmed or whole milk. Add just 50 g/2 oz Cheddar cheese (455 mg) and 50g/2oz pilchard (170 mg) and you have slightly over your weekly total.

Vitamin A – If you drink whole or semi-skimmed milk, this will contribute to your Vitamin A intake. But skimmed milk loses this fat soluble vitamin when the cream is removed. However, you can easily achieve your 5250 micro-grams Vitamin A recommended weekly intake if you eat 2 tomatoes, 75 g /3 oz cabbage, 75 g /3 oz sprouts, 75 g low – fat spread, 115 g cheese, 2 eggs and 40 g of liver.

Vitamin C – Tomatoes, cabbage and sprouts will contribute about 100 mg Vitamin C to your weekly total. You then need to include 450 g boiled potatoes, 450 g baked potatoes, and one small orange to reach recommended weekly intake of 210 mg.

There are countless forms of food available. It is important one should know what kind of food is to be eaten and when to eat and how much to eat.

It is also essential that one should match her/his energy intake (calories/ kilojoules) to the requirements to maintain ideal weight. Eating a properly balanced diet is vital for everyone.

Appropriate exercise is also a significant factor to keep you slim and fit.

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Healthy fixes for your office chair

Office Chair Tips

Adopting your office chair to fit as if it were made-to-order can make life a lot easier on your back, especially when you consider that sitting puts almost half again as much pressure on your lower spinal discs as standing does. That is, a lot! Here are some tips to make it easier for you to sit on your office chair.

Start with the 90-90-90 rule

The body-bends at your elbows, hips and knees should be right angles, give or take ten degrees. That’s the ideal for comfort and posture health. To achieve it, sit upright with your back against the chair back and raise or lower your seat to arrive at the 90- degree elbow angle — where your shoulders are relaxed, forearms resting comfortably on the desk top. (There should still be enough underside clearance to swivel in and out easily.)

Office Chair Tips

If this seal height leaves your feet dangling, prop them up on a book, stool or other footrest, high enough to keep your knees at the 90-degree mark or a little higher (lower uncomfortably compresses backs-of-thighs).

Position reading material, writing paper or your VDT screen so you don’t have to strain your head and neck forward to read, type or write; it throws your back out of line. Lastly, be sure to getup for a stretch/stroll every half hour to an hour to give your back a pressure-break.

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